19 – 22 September 2017
Kuala Lumpur





The lead sulfate film formed on lead is a great technological interest because of its occurrence in lead–acid batteries. From studies on flat-electrodes, some researchers claim that the sulfate film has two different structures ― a continuous and a disrupted one. In lead–acid battery plates, however, it is necessary take into account the reaction zone mechanisms and their influence on the formation of a sulfate film. The aim of the present work was to study the structure of the film via two approaches. An experimental study was performed on a flat lead electrode on which cylindrical pores were gradually built up. Whereas a theoretical study was undertaken using a novel Comsol Multiphysics 3D model to simulate data obtained with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Experimental cyclic voltammetry showed that by comparing sulfate film formation and reduction charges it is possible to detect two different film structures (continuous and disrupted ones). Experimental EIS results report the presence of two capacitive arcs that are attributed to different sulfate films. It is concluded that polarization resistance is related to the first and second capacitive loop and the formed sulfate film. The experimental results were compared with the Comsol Multiphysics simulations and the model correctly demonstrated the development of a reaction zone along the pores and the formation of a sulfate film.

Patricio Impinnisi
Institute of Technology for Development - LACTEC
Senior Researcher

Patricio Impinnisi holds Master Degree from the Moscow State University Lomonossov in Russia and a PhD from the Federal University of Sao Carlos in Brazil. Between 1999and 2009, he was a Senior Researcher Scientist at the Institute of Technology for Development in Curitiba (Brazil). Since then, he has been an Assistant Professor at Federal University of Parana State where leads various research programs that include the development of battery energy-storage systems for smart grid applications.

Juliano Andrade
Institute of Technology for Development - LACTEC

Juliano de Andrade is a chemical engineer (2002) and has a PhD in Materials Science (2010). Works with electrochemistry since 1998, and has experience in reaction mechanisms, sizing and managing of lead acid batteries. Currently he works as a Full Researcher at Lactec Institute, dedicated to applied research for Power Utilities and industrial sector in general. He is also a professor at master degree level, and has been supervisor of four master degree thesis, joint supervisor of other four, and several undergraduate students’ projects, always dedicated to power storage. He has six papers, several conference presentations and a patent.

Priscilla Mengarda
Federal University of Parana
PhD Student

Graduated in Chemistry at Federal University of Parana (Brazil) in 2009, obtained her Master Degree in Material Science and Engineering at the same university in 2012 (her dissertation was about impedance measurements in porous electrodes). Currently works in her PhD about electrochemical sensors in the same university.